You will need to start with a cold pitcher, size appropriate to your espresso machine’s capacity, and the amount of milk you will be using at the time. The pitcher should be clean. Pour the amount of cold milk you will need for your drink. It is important that both the pitcher and the milk be cold, otherwise you will not be able to get a rich froth and sweet flavor from the milk to match the espresso. Hold the wand just below the surface of the milk, so the milk becomes a whirlpool; tilt the pitcher a bit to help the air circulate into the milk. The idea behind steaming milk is to aerate it, thus creating micro bubbles. Steam the milk in the range of 150 to 155 degrees Fahrenheit. After 155F the proteins begin to break down and the milk turns sour. Your milk should now appear to have doubled in quantity. Pull the shots needed for the espresso drink. Combine espresso and milk as needed to create cappuccinos, macchiato, lattes, mochas, and cafe au lait.